Following publications have been announced by our department Matter Transport and Ecosystem Dynamics. For further information please contact the marked authors:
Benkort, D., Daewel, U., Heath, M., & Schrum, C. (2020): On the Role of Biogeochemical Coupling Between Sympagic and Pelagic Ecosystem Compartments for Primary and Secondary Production in the Barents Sea. Front. Environ. Sci. 8:548013, doi:10.3389/fenvs.2020.548013
Primary production in the Arctic marine system is principally due to pelagic phytoplankton. In addition, sea-ice algae also make a contribution and play an important role in food web dynamics. A proper representation of sea-ice algae phenology and the linkage with the pelagic and benthic systems is needed, so as to better understand the ecosystem response to warming and shrinking ice cover. Here we describe the extension of the biogeochemical model ECOSMO II to include a sympagic system in the model formulation, illustrated by implementation in the Barents Sea. The new sympagic system formulation includes four nutrients (NO3, NH4, PO4, and SiO2), one functional group for sea-ice algae and one detritus pool, and exchanges with the surface ocean layer. We investigated the effects of linkage between the three systems (sympagic, pelagic, and benthic) on the ecosystem dynamic; the contribution of the ice algae to total primary production; and how the changes in ice coverage will affect the lower trophic level Arctic food-web dynamics. To solve the scientific and technical challenges related to the coupling, the model was implemented in a 1D application of the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). Results showed that the model simulated the seasonal pattern of the sympagic components realistically when compared to the current knowledge of the Barents Sea. Our results show that the sympagic system influences the timing and the amplitude of the pelagic primary and secondary production in the water column. We also demonstrated that sea-ice algae production leads to seeding of pelagic diatoms and an enhancement of the zooplankton production. Finally, we used the model to explain how the interaction between zooplankton and ice algae can control the pelagic primary production in the Barents Sea.
Logemann, K., Linardakis, L., Korn, P., & Schrum, C. (2020): Global tide simulations with ICON-O: testing the model performance on highly irregular meshes. Ocean Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s10236-020-01428-7
The global tide is simulated with the global ocean general circulation model ICON-O using a newly developed tidal module, which computes the full tidal potential. The simulated coastal M2 amplitudes, derived by a discrete Fourier transformation of the output sea level time series, are compared with the according values derived from satellite altimetry (TPXO-8 atlas). The experiments are repeated with four uniform and sixteen irregular triangular grids. The results show that the quality of the coastal tide simulation depends primarily on the coastal resolution and that the ocean interior can be resolved up to twenty times lower without causing considerable reductions in quality. The mesh transition zones between areas of different resolutions are formed by cell bisection and subsequent local spring optimisation tolerating a triangular cell’s maximum angle up to 84°. Numerical problems with these high-grade non-equiangular cells were not encountered. The results emphasise the numerical feasibility and potential efficiency of highly irregular computational meshes used by ICON-O.
Saiz-Lopez, A., Travnikov, O., Sonke, J.E., Thackray, C.P., Jacob, D.J., Carmona-García, J., Francés-Monerris, A., Roca-Sanjuán, D., Acuña, A.U., Dávalos, J.Z., Cuevas, C.A., Jiskra, M., Wang, F., Bieser, J., Plane, J.M.C., & Francisco, J.S. (2020): Photochemistry of oxidized Hg(I) and Hg(II) species suggests missing mercury oxidation in the troposphere. PNAS, 201922486, doi:10.1073/pnas.1922486117
Mercury (Hg), a global contaminant, is emitted mainly in its elemental form Hg0 to the atmosphere where it is oxidized to reactive HgII compounds, which efficiently deposit to surface ecosystems. Therefore, the chemical cycling between the elemental and oxidized Hg forms in the atmosphere determines the scale and geographical pattern of global Hg deposition. Recent advances in the photochemistry of gas-phase oxidized HgI and HgII species postulate their photodissociation back to Hg0 as a crucial step in the atmospheric Hg redox cycle. However, the significance of these photodissociation mechanisms on atmospheric Hg chemistry, lifetime, and surface deposition remains uncertain. Here we implement a comprehensive and quantitative mechanism of the photochemical and thermal atmospheric reactions between Hg0, HgI, and HgII species in a global model and evaluate the results against atmospheric Hg observations. We find that the photochemistry of HgI and HgII leads to insufficient Hg oxidation globally. The combined efficient photoreduction of HgI and HgII to Hg0 competes with thermal oxidation of Hg0, resulting in a large model overestimation of 99% of measured Hg0 and underestimation of 51% of oxidized Hg and ∼66% of HgII wet deposition. This in turn leads to a significant increase in the calculated global atmospheric Hg lifetime of 20 mo, which is unrealistically longer than the 3–6-mo range based on observed atmospheric Hg variability. These results show that the HgI and HgII photoreduction processes largely offset the efficiency of bromine-initiated Hg0 oxidation and reveal missing Hg oxidation processes in the troposphere.