Wu, L., Staneva, J., Breivik, Ø., Rutgersson, A., Nurser, A.J.G., Clementi, E., & Madec, G. (2019): Wave effects on coastal upwelling and water level. Ocean Modelling, Volume 140, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2019.101405
Traditional atmosphere, ocean and wave models are run independently of each other. This means that the energy and momentum fluxes do not fully account for the impact of the oceanic wave field at the air-sea interface. In this study, the Stokes drift impact on mass and tracer advection, the Stokes-Coriolis forcing, and the sea-state-dependent momentum and energy fluxes are introduced into an ocean circulation model and tested for a domain covering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Sensitivity experiments are designed to investigate the influence on the simulation of storms and Baltic Sea upwelling. Inclusion of wave effects improves the model performance compared with the stand-alone circulation model in terms of sea level height, temperature and circulation. The direct sea-state-dependent momentum and turbulent kinetic energy fluxes prove to be of higher importance than the Stokes drift related effects investigated in this study (i.e., Stokes-Coriolis forcing and Stokes drift advection on tracers and on mass). The latter affects the mass and tracer advection but largely balances the influence of the Stokes-Coriolis forcing. The upwelling frequency changes by >10% along the Swedish coast when wave effects are included. In general, the strong (weak) upwelling probability is reduced (increased) when adding the wave effects. From the results, we conclude that inclusion of wave effects can be important for regional, high-resolution ocean models even on short time scales, suggesting that they should be introduced in operational ocean circulation models. However, care should be taken when introducing the Stokes-Coriolis forcing as it should be balanced by the Stokes drift in mass and tracer advection.