Palazov, A., Ciliberti, S., Peneva, E., Gregoire, M., Staneva, J., Lemieux-Dudon, B., Masina, S., Pinardi, N., Vandenbulcke, L., Behrens, A., Lima, L., Coppini, G., Marinova, V., Slabakova, V., Lecci, R., Creti, S., Palermo, F., Stefanizzi, L., Valcheva, N., & Agostini, P. (2019): Black Sea Observing System. Front. Mar. Sci. 6:315. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00315
The ultimate goal of modern operational oceanography are end user oriented products with high scientific quality. Beneficiaries are the governmental services, coast and offshore based enterprises and research institutions that make use of the products generated by operational oceanography. Direct users are coastal managers, shipping, search and rescue, oil spill combat, offshore industry, ports, fishing, tourism, and recreation industry. Indirect beneficiaries, through climate forecasting based on ocean observations, are food, energy, water and medical suppliers. Availability of updated information on the actual state as well as forecast of marine environment is essential for the success and safety of maritime operations in the offshore industry. Various systems for the collection and presentation of marine data for the needs of different users have been developed and put in operation in the Black Sea. The systems are located both along the coast and in the open sea and the information they provide is used by both the maritime industry and the widest range of users. The Black Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Center in the frame of the Copernicus Marine Service is providing regular and systematic information about the physical state of the ocean, marine ecosystem and wave conditions in the Black Sea area, assimilating observations, keeping efficient operations, advanced technology and high quality modeling products. Combining and optimizing in situ, remote sensing, modeling and forecasting into a Black Sea observing system is a task that has to be solved, and that will allow to get a more complete and comprehensive picture of the state of the marine environment as well as to forecast future changes of physical and biogeochemical state of the Black Sea and the Black Sea ecosystem.
Lewis, H.W., Castillo Sanchez, J.M., Siddorn, J., King, R.R., Tonani, M., Saulter, A., Sykes, P., Pequignet, A.-C., Weedon, G.P., Palmer, T., Staneva, J., & Bricheno, L. (2019): Can wave coupling improve operational regional ocean forecasts for the north-west European Shelf? Ocean Sci., 15, 669-690, doi:10.5194/os-15-669-2019
Operational ocean forecasts are typically produced by modelling systems run using a forced mode approach. The evolution of the ocean state is not directly influenced by surface waves, and the ocean dynamics are driven by an external source of meteorological data which are independent of the ocean state. Model coupling provides one approach to increase the extent to which ocean forecast systems can represent the interactions and feedbacks between ocean, waves, and the atmosphere seen in nature. This paper demonstrates the impact of improving how the effect of waves on the momentum exchange across the ocean–atmosphere interface is represented through ocean–wave coupling on the performance of an operational regional ocean prediction system. This study focuses on the eddy-resolving (1.5 km resolution) Atlantic Margin Model (AMM15) ocean model configuration for the north-west European Shelf (NWS) region.
A series of 2-year duration forecast trials of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) north-west European Shelf regional ocean prediction system are analysed. The impact of including ocean–wave feedbacks via dynamic coupling on the simulated ocean is discussed. The main interactions included are the modification of surface stress by wave growth and dissipation, Stokes–Coriolis forcing, and wave-height-dependent ocean surface roughness. Given the relevance to operational forecasting, trials with and without ocean data assimilation are considered.
Summary forecast metrics demonstrate that the ocean–wave coupled system is a viable evolution for future operational implementation. When results are considered in more depth, wave coupling was found to result in an annual cycle of relatively warmer winter and cooler summer sea surface temperatures for seasonally stratified regions of the NWS. This is driven by enhanced mixing due to waves, and a deepening of the ocean mixed layer during summer. The impact of wave coupling is shown to be reduced within the mixed layer with assimilation of ocean observations. Evaluation of salinity and ocean currents against profile measurements in the German Bight demonstrates improved simulation with wave coupling relative to control simulations. Further, evidence is provided of improvement to simulation of extremes of sea surface height anomalies relative to coastal tide gauges.